维基词典:語系

purple question mark.svg 本页或以下篇幅是一项有關维基詞典的方针、指引或流程的提议。该提议可能仍需要进一步的完善,需要更多讨论并进一步获得社群的共识来确立。请勿在引用或者链接中把本页的描述作为一项正式的方针或指引。

維基詞典將語言分為不同的家族。大多數語系是藉由共同祖先而聯繫在一起的,但也有少數語系僅僅是普通分類,如「克里奧爾語和皮欽語」。維基詞典按語系組織語言分類派生類別。每個語系在維基詞典上都有一個名稱和一個代碼。

關於語言和方言的討論,請分別參見Wiktionary:語言Wiktionary:方言

關於所有語系的代碼列表,請參閱Wiktionary:語系列表

語系代碼编辑

Wiktionary represents families by codes. Family codes are stored in Module:families along with related data. These codes are generally three letters, or three letters followed by a hyphen followed by another three letters. Exceptionally, they may be other strings. Family codes can reasonably be used in etymology templates like {{der}}, {{bor}} and {{inh}} and of course in the namespace dedicated to reconstructions.

Genetic families编辑

Genetic families are groups of languages which have a common ancestry. Wiktionary follows prevailing scholarship when grouping languages into genetic categories. Each genetic family has a code.

Many genetic families have an ISO 639-5 code. When one is available, it is used on Wiktionary as well. For example, the Austroasiatic languages are aav, the Celtic languages are cel, the Germanic languages are gem.

When a family has no standard ISO-639-5 code, but one of its superfamilies does have a code, Wiktionary assigns it a two part exceptional code. The first part is the ISO-639-5 code of its nearest superfamily, and the second part is a series of three lowercase letters which generally approximate the name of the family. For example, the Pama-Nyungan family is aus-pam: "aus" is the ISO 639-5 code for Australian languages, "pam" abbreviates "Pama-Nyungan". The Brythonic languages are cel-bry; Jewish Aramaic languages are sem-jar; South Bird's Head languages are ngf-sbh.

When neither a family nor any of its superfamilies has an ISO 639-5 code, the special code "qfa" is used as the first part, with the "q..." range being allowed by the ISO for private use and "fa" standing for "family". (This system was devised on IRC and in the BP.) For example, the Misumalpan languages are qfa-min.

Non-genetic categories and isolates编辑

Not all language groupings are genetic. Some groups contain languages with other common properties, or languages spoken in a certain area. The following are recognised:

  • art = Artificial/constructed languages, which are purposely created by linguists or hobbyists. Some may be widely used (such as Esperanto), but most are only limited to small communites (like Láadan).
  • crp = Creole or pidgin languages, which developed as a means of communication between groups that had no common language. For example, Krio, Zamboanga Chavacano, Greenlandic Eskimo Pidgin.
  • sgn = Sign languages (such as ASL), which are not spoken but communicated through gesturing.
  • qfa-mix = Mixed languages, which formed by roughly equal mixing of two or more languages, usually by speakers that spoke the source languages fluently.
  • qfa-iso = Language isolates, which have no demonstrated relationship to any other language (such as Ainu).
  • qfa-und = Languages with an unknown or undetermined affiliation. These differ from language isolates in that there is no linguistic consensus or maybe even no research at all on the further relationships of the languages. This code is used by most languages that have not yet had a family assigned to them by Wiktionary editors. This code is also used for language families which are not part of a larger family.
  • qfa-not = Languages that do not belong to a family in principle, because they are not true languages. "Translingual" (mul), "Undetermined" (und) and "substrate" (qfa-sub) are not languages, and cannot be considered members of any family. This code is also used for groupings of languages which are treated on Wiktionary as families, but which are not related. The preceding special family codes themselves also use this code.

語系名稱编辑

  • 所有的語系名稱在各自的詞條中都應被定義為中文單詞。
  • 每一語系只使用一個名稱(用於詞源、分類和其他方面)。如果有兩個或兩個以上的名稱,則選擇其中一個。
  • 為明確起見,應盡可能避免語系和語言使用相同的名稱。
  • 語系的其他名稱應在詞條的「同義詞」或「替代形式」章節中列出。

參見编辑