拉丁語编辑

詞源编辑

源自原始意大利語 *sākris (神聖的) ← 原始印歐語 *seh₂k- (神聖化;簽約)

發音编辑

形容詞编辑

sacer(阴性 sacra,中性 sacrum); 第一/第二類變格 形容詞 (主格陽性單數結尾為-er)

  1. 神聖的,受崇敬(翻譯希臘語ἱερός)
    • c. 200 BCE, Plautus, Menaechmi V.5.38:
      at ego te sacram coronam surrupuisse Iovi scio
      And I know that you stole the sacred crown of Jupiter.
  2. 犧牲的;受詛咒
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid III.56:
      quid non mortalia pectora cogis / auri sacra fames
      Accursed hunger for gold, what do you not compel the hearts of men to do!
  3. 天賜的,天空
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid VIII.591:
      extulit os sacrum caelo tenebrasque resoluit
      lifts to the skies his countenance divine, and melts the shadows of the night away.
  4. (詩歌用法, 奧古斯都後的散文) 可恨的,可怕的;有罪的;邪惡
    • c. 190 BCE, Plautus, Bacchides 4.6.14:
      ego sum malus ego sum sacer scelestus
      I am a bad one, I am a cursed one—a wicked one.

變格编辑

第一/第二類變格 adjective (主格陽性單數結尾為-er)。

單數 複數
格 / 性 陽性 陰性 中性 陽性 陰性 中性
主格 sacer sacra sacrum sacrī sacrae sacra
屬格 sacrī sacrae sacrī sacrōrum sacrārum sacrōrum
與格 sacrō sacrō sacrīs
賓格 sacrum sacram sacrum sacrōs sacrās sacra
奪格 sacrō sacrā sacrō sacrīs
呼格 sacer sacra sacrum sacrī sacrae sacra

近義詞编辑

反義詞编辑

派生詞编辑

相關詞彙编辑

派生語彙编辑

  • 阿斯圖里亞斯語: sacru
  • 加泰羅尼亞語: sacre
  • 加利西亞語: sacro, sagro
  • 意大利語: sacro

參考資料编辑

  • sacer in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879
  • sacer in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • sacer在Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français (拉丁語-法語詳解詞典), Hachette中的內容
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • (模糊)ritual; ceremonial: sacra, res divinae, religiones, caerimoniae
    • (模糊)to sacrifice: sacra, sacrificium facere (ἱερὰ ῥέζειν), sacrificare
    • (模糊)to profane sacred rites: sacra polluere et violare
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ISBN 9789004167971, 页532