维基词典:漢語發音表記

現代標準漢語编辑

以下為根據漢語拼音而來的發音表記。詳細請參考w:現代標準漢語#語音系統

声母编辑

发音方法发音部位 双唇音 唇齿音 齿龈音 卷舌音 龈颚音 软颚音
塞音
清音
不送气 ‹b› 
 玻
‹d› 
 得
‹g› 
 哥
送气 ‹p› 
 坡
‹t› 
 特
‹k› 
 科
塞擦音
清音
不送气 ‹z› 
 资
‹zh› 
 知
‹j› 
 基
送气 ‹c› 
 雌
‹ch› 
 蚩
‹q› 
 欺
擦音清音 ‹f› 
 佛
‹s› 
 思
‹sh› 
 诗
‹x› 
 希
‹h› 
 喝
鼻音浊音 ‹m› 
 摸
‹n› 
 讷
边音浊音 ‹l› 
 勒
通音浊音 ‹r› 
 日

韻母编辑

开口呼 齐齿呼 合口呼 撮口呼
单元音韵母 ‹-i› 
 之、资的韵母
‹i› 
 衣
‹u› 
 乌
‹ü› 
 迂
‹a› 
 啊
‹ia› 
丨ㄚ 呀
‹ua› 
ㄨㄚ 蛙
‹o› 
 喔
‹uo› 
ㄨㄛ 窝
‹e› 
 鹅
‹ê› 
 诶
‹ie› 
丨ㄝ 耶
‹üe› 
ㄩㄝ 约
‹er› 
 儿
复元音韵母 ‹ai› 
 哀
‹uai› 
ㄨㄞ 歪
‹ei› 
 诶
‹u(e)i› 
ㄨㄟ 威
‹ao› 
 熬
‹iao› 
丨ㄠ 腰
‹ou› 
 欧
‹iou› 
丨ㄡ 优
带鼻音韵母 ‹an› 
 安
‹ian› 
丨ㄢ 烟
‹uan› 
ㄨㄢ 弯
‹üan› 
ㄩㄢ 冤
‹en› 
 恩
‹in› 
丨ㄣ 因
‹u(e)n› 
ㄨㄣ 温
‹ün› 
ㄩㄣ 晕
‹ang› 
 昂
‹iang› 
丨ㄤ 央
‹uang› 
ㄨㄤ 汪
‹eng› 
 亨的韵母
‹ing› 
丨ㄥ 英
‹ueng/ong› 
ㄨㄥ 翁
同‹iong›
‹ong› 
ㄨㄥ 轰的韵母
‹iong› 
ㄩㄥ 庸

粵語编辑

廣州話拼音對照表编辑

聲母编辑

  IPA 寬式IPA 黃錫凌 廣州 教院 粵拼 耶魯 劉錫祥 Meyer-Wempe 越语式
[p] [b] b b b b b b p b
[pʰ] [p] p p p p p p p' p
[m] [m] m m m m m m m m
[f] [f] f f f f f f f f
[t] [d] d d d d d d t t
[tʰ] [t] t t t t t t t' th
[n] [n] n n n n n n n n
[l] [l] l l l l l l l l
[k] [g] g g g g g g k k
[kʰ] [k] k k k k k k k' kh
[ŋ] [ŋ] ng ng ng ng ng ng ng ng
[h] [h] h h h h h h h h
[t͡s] [d͡z] dz z dz z j j ts ch
[t͡ɕ] [d͡z] dz j dz z j j ch ch
[t͡sʰ] [t͡s] ts c ts c ch ch ts' ts
[t͡ɕʰ] [t͡s] ts q ts c ch ch ch' ts
[s] [s] s s s s s s s s
[ɕ] [s] s x s s s s sh s
[kʷ] [gw] gw gu gw gw gw gw kw gw
[kʷʰ] [kw] kw ku kw kw kw kw k'w kw
[j] [j] y y j j y y y/i d
[w] [w] w w w w w w w/oo w

韻母编辑

  IPA 寬式IPA 黃錫凌 廣州 教院 粵拼 耶魯 劉錫祥 Meyer-Wempe 越语式
[ɑː] [a] aa a aa aa a a a a
[ɑːi] [ai] aai ai aai aai aai aai aai ai
[ɑːu] [au] aau ao aau aau aau aau aau ao
(監) [ɑːm] [am] aam am aam aam aam aam aam am
[ɑːn] [an] aan an aan aan aan aan aan an
[ɑːŋ] [aŋ] aang ang aang aang aang aang aang ang
[ɑːp] [ap] aap ab aap aap aap aap aap ap
[ɑːt] [at] aat ad aat aat aat aat aat at
(客) [ɑːk] [ak] aak ag aak aak aak aak aak ac
[ɐi] [ɐi] ai ei ai ai ai ai ai ây
[ɐu] [ɐu] au eo au au au au au âu
[ɐm] [ɐm] am em am am am am am/om âm
(恩) [ɐn] [ɐn] an en an an an an an anh
[ɐŋ] [ɐŋ] ang eng ang ang ang ang ang ǎng
(急) [ɐp] [ɐp] ap eb ap ap ap ap ap/op ǎp
(不) [ɐt] [ɐt] at ed at at at at at ach
(德) [ɐk] [ɐk] ak eg ak ak ak ak ak ǎc
[ɛː] [ɛ] e é e e e e e e
(非) [ei] [ei] ei éi ei ei ei ei ei i
(掉)* [ɛːu]       eu eu        
(舔)* [ɛːm]       em em        
(鏡) [ɛːŋ] [ɛŋ] eng éng eng eng eng eng eng eng
(夾)* [ɛːp]       ep ep        
(尺) [ɛːk] [ɛk] ek ég ek ek ek ek ek ec
[iː] [i] i i i i i i i ia
[iːu] [iu] iu iu iu iu iu iu iu iu
[iːm] [im] im im im im im im im im
[iːn] [in] in in in in in in in in
[ɪŋ] [iŋ] ing ing ing ing ing ing ing ing
[iːp] [ip] ip ib ip ip ip ip ip ip
[iːt] [it] it id it it it it it it
[ɪk] [ik] ik ig ik ik ik ik ik ic
[ɔː] [ɔ] o o o o o oh oh o
[ɔːi] [ɔi] oi oi oi oi oi oi oi oi
[ou] [ou] ou ou ou ou ou o o u
[ɔːn] [ɔn] on on on on on on on on
(康) [ɔːŋ] [ɔŋ] ong ong ong ong ong ong ong oong
(渴) [ɔːt] [ɔt] ot od ot ot ot ot ot ot
[ɔːk] [ɔk] ok og ok ok ok ok ok oot
[uː] [u] u u u u u oo oo ua
[uːi] [ui] ui ui ui ui ui ooi ooi ui
[uːn] [un] un un un un un oon oon un
[ʊŋ] [uŋ] ung ung ung ung ung ung ung ung
[uːt] [ut] ut ud ut ut ut oot oot ut
[ʊk] [uk] uk ug uk uk uk uk uk uc
[œː] [œ] eu ê oe oe eu euh oeh uêa
(香) [œːŋ] [œŋ] eung êng oeng oeng eung eung eung uơng
(約) [œːk] [œk] euk êg oek oek euk euk euk uơc
(去) [ɵy] [œy] eue êu oey eoi eui ui ui uâi
(春) [ɵn] [œn] eun ên oen eon un un un uânh
(律) [ɵt] [œt] eut êd oet eot ut ut ut uâch
[yː] [y] ue ü y yu yu ue ue uya
[yːn] [yn] uen ün yn yun yun uen uen uyn
[yːt] [yt] uet üd yt yut yut uet uet uyt
[m̩] [m̩] m m m m m m m uhm
[ŋ̩] [ŋ̩] ng ng ng ng ng ng ng uhm
  • *:口語變異
  • 黃錫凌羅馬拼音 euue 省略成 eue, 廣州話拼音方案 êü 省略成 êu
  • 在廣州話拼音方案,聲母 j, q, x 是用來拼寫 i, ü 韻之用,另外 ü 行的韻母用來拼 j, q, x 時,省略兩點

聲調编辑

下表的平、上、去聲以 “a” 音為例,入聲以 “at” 音為例。

  IPA 寬式IPA 黃錫凌 廣州 教院 粵拼 耶魯 劉錫祥 Meyer-Wempe 越语式
陰平,53 ˥˧ ˈa ˈa 1 1 1 à 1 a á
高平,55 ˥˥ ˈa ˈa 1 1 1 ā 10 a  
陰上,35 ˧˥ ˊa ˊa 2 2 2 á 2 á ã
陰去,33 ˧˧ ˉa ˉa 3 3 3 a 3 à a
陽平,21或11 ˨˩ 或 ˩˩ ˌa ˌa 4 4 4 àh 4 ā à
陽上,13或23 ˩˧ 或 ˨˧ ˏa ˏa 5 5 5 áh 5 ǎ
陽去,22 ˨˨ ˍa ˍa 6 6 6 ah 6 â à
陰入,5 ˥ ˈat ˈat 1 7或1 1 āt 1 at á
中入,3 ˧ ˉat ˉat 3 8或3 3 at 3 àt a
陽入,2 ˨ ˍat ˍat 6 9或6 6 aht 6 ât à

台山話拼音對照表编辑

聲母编辑

IPA 維基詞典 Stephen Li Gene Chin 國防語言學院
/t͡sʰ/ c ts ch ch’
/p/ b b b p
/t/ d d d t
/k/ g g g k
/f/ f f f f
/h/ h h h h
/kʰ/ k k k k’
/ᵐb/ m m m m
/l/ l l l l
/ⁿd/ n n n n
/pʰ/ p p p p’
/ᵑg/ ng ŋ ng ng
/tʰ/ t t t t’
/v/ v v v w
/ʒ/ y y y y
/t͡s/ z dz j ch
/ɬ/ lh ɬ x lh
/s/ s s s s

韻母编辑

IPA 維基詞典 Stephen Li Gene Chin 國防語言學院
/iu/ iu iu iu iu
/ak̚/ ak ak ak aak
/am/ am am am aam
/iak̚/ iak iak ek iak
/eu/ eu ǝu eo aau
/i/ i i i i
/iau/ iau iau el iau
/un/ un un un oon
/ᵘɔ/ o ɔ o o
/ɔk̚/ ok ɔk ok ok
/iaŋ/ iang iaŋ eng iang
/ᵘɔi/ oi ɔi oi oi
/iap̚/ iap iap ep iep
/iɛ/ ie ia eh e
/ɵŋ/ uung ǝŋ ung ung
/au/ au ɔu ao aau
/im/ im im im im
/ɔŋ/ ong ɔŋ ong ong
/em/ em ǝm eim ?
/an/ an an an aan
/ep̚/ ep ǝp eip ? 𢱕
/et̚/ et ɛt eik ?
/ip̚/ ip ip ip ip
/ᵘɔt̚/ ot ɔt ot ot
/aŋ/ ang ang aang
/m̩/ m m m m
/ɵt̚/ uut ut ut ?
/ut̚/ ut ut ut oot
/ɵk̚/ uuk ǝk uk uk
/in/ in in in in
/ei/ ei i i i
/ᵘɔn/ on ɔn on on
/ui/ ui ui ui ooi
/at̚/ at at at aat
/u/ u u u oo
/iam/ iam iam em iem
/it̚/ it it it it
/en/ en ein ein ien
/a/ a a a a
/ai/ ai ai ai aai
/ap̚/ ap ap ap aap

聲調编辑

調值 維基詞典 Gene Chin 國防語言學院
33 1 ä à
55 2 ā a
22 3 ã ā
21 4 â ạ̄
32 5 à â
變調编辑
調值 維基詞典 Gene Chin 國防語言學院
335 1* ä/ à*
225 3* ã/ ā*
215 4* â/ ạ̄*
325 5* à/ â* 台山

閩南語编辑

閩南語白話字编辑

聲母编辑

  塞音塞擦音 鼻音 擦音 邊音
清音 濁音
不送氣 送氣
唇音 p
ph
b
m
舌音 t
th
n
l
齒音 ch
chh
j
s
牙音 k
kh
g
ng
喉音 h
  1. 「唇舌齒牙喉」依傳統五音,與現代語言學的發音部位分法不儘相同。
  2. 漢字為傳統十五音,但「毛、耐、雅」十五音裡沒有;另十五音有零聲母「英」,白話字不標。

元音编辑

  前元音 央元音 後元音
高元音 i u
中元音 e o
低元音 a
  1. 有些腔調的o是發成半閉後圓唇元音 、半閉後不圓唇元音

聲調编辑

(以a為標注範例)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
陰平 陰上 陰去 陰入 陽平 陽上 陽去 陽入
a á à a+入聲韻尾 â ā ā +入聲韻尾
備注编辑
  • 七聲調區,第6聲(陽上)併入第7聲(陽去),是為聲韻學上「濁上變去」。
  • 第4、8聲為入聲。
  • 入聲韻尾:有 -p、-t、-k、-h 四種。 喉塞音韻尾 -h 僅會出現於白讀

閩南語台羅音標编辑

客家話编辑

客家話拼音方案编辑

字母编辑

拼音採用拉丁字母,其中r、w不用來拼寫梅縣客家話。ê 是字母 e 的變體,用以代表

聲母编辑

聲母總數為19個。不以輔音為首的音節,稱為零聲母。列表如下:

b p m f v
d t n l  
g k ng h  
j q x 西    
z c s    

資 zi1、雌 ci1、思 si1 等字的韻母用 i

韻母编辑

韻母總數為74個。列表如下:

i i u
a ia ua
o io uo
ê (撒)
ai iai uai
oi    
au iau  
êu    
  iu  
  iui ui
am iam  
êm    
em im
an ian uan
on ion uon
ên iên uên
en in
  iun un
ang iang uang
ong iong uong
  iung ung
ab iab  
êb    
eb ib  
ad iad uad
od    
êd iêd uêd
ed id  
  iud ud
ag iag uag
og iog uog
  iug ug
m n  

i 行的韻母,前面沒有聲母的時候,寫成 yi、ya、yo、yê、yai、yau、yu、yui、yam、yim、yan、yin、yun、yang、yong、yung、yab、yib、yad、yid、yud、yag、yog、yug。

聲調编辑

調類 陰平 陽平 上聲 去聲 陰入 陽入
調號 1 2 3 4 5 6
調值 44 11 31 52 11 55
  fu1 fu2 fu3 fu4 fug5 fug6
例字

外部鏈接编辑

晉語编辑

聲母编辑

IPA 維基詞典
/p/ b
/pʰx/ p
/m/ m
/f/ f
/v/ v
/t/ d
/tʰx/ t
/n/ n
/l/ l
/t͡s/ z
/t͡sʰ/ c
/s/ s
/ʐ/ r
/t͡ɕ/ j
/t͡ɕʰ/ q
/ɕ/ x
/k/ g
/kʰx/ k
/x/ h
/ɣ/ gh 舊式; = 新式 /ŋ/
/ŋ/ ng 新式; = 舊式 /ɣ/

韻母编辑

IPA 維基詞典
/z̩/ i 只在 /t͡s/
/i/ i
/u/ u
/y/ y
/əɻ/ er
/a/ a
/ia/ ia
/ua/ ua
/ɤ/ e
/uɤ/ ue
/ie/ ie
/ye/ ye
/ai/ ai
/uai/ uai
/ei/ ei
/uei/ ui
/au/ au
/iau/ iau
/əu/ eu
/iəu/ ieu
/æ̃/ an
/uæ̃/ uan
/ɒ̃/ on 舊式; = 新式 /aŋ/
/iɒ̃/ ion 舊式; = 新式 /iaŋ/
/uɒ̃/ uon 舊式; = 新式 /uaŋ/
/aŋ/ ang 新式; = 舊式 /ɒ̃/
/iaŋ/ iang 新式; = 舊式 /iɒ̃/
/uaŋ/ uang 新式; = 舊式 /uɒ̃/
/ə̃ŋ/ eng
/ĩŋ/ ing
/ũŋ/ ung
/ỹŋ/ yng
/aʔ/ ah 在新式中多併入 /əʔ/
/iaʔ/ iah
/uaʔ/ uah 在新式中多併入 /uəʔ/
/əʔ/ eh
/iəʔ/ ieh
/uəʔ/ ueh
/yəʔ/ yeh

兒化编辑

在原有韻尾後加上“r”來表示兒化。對於韻尾-e (/ɤ/),要在“r”前加上一個撇,即-e'r (/ɤɻ/),以區別於-er (/əɻ/)。

聲調编辑

聲調名 聲調值 維基詞典
平聲 11 1
上聲 53 2
去聲 45 3
陰入 2 4
陽入 54 5 在新式中併入陰入
輕聲

湘語编辑

聲母编辑

IPA 維基詞典
/p/ b
/pʰ/ p
/m/ m
/ɸ/ f
/t/ d
/tʰ/ t
/l̃/ l
/t͡s/ z 在新式中當在/i/前時改用/t͡ɕ/
/t͡sʰ/ c 在新式中當在/i/前時改用/t͡ɕʰ/
/s/ s 在新式中當在/i/前時改用/ɕ/
/t͡ʂ/ zh 在新式中併入/t͡s/
/t͡ʂʰ/ ch 在新式中併入/t͡sʰ/
/ʂ/ sh 在新式中併入/s/
/ʐ/ r
/t͡ɕ/ j
/t͡ɕʰ/ q
/n̠ʲ/ ny
/ɕ/ x
/k/ g
/kʰ/ k
/ŋ/ ng
/x/ h

韻母编辑

IPA 維基詞典
/z̩/ r 只在/t͡s/
/ʐ̩/ r 只在/t͡ʂ/
/i/ i
/u/ u
/y/ y
/a̠/ a
/ia̠/ ia
/ua̠/ ua
/ya̠/ ya
/o/ o
/io/ io
/ɤ̞/ e
/ie̞/ ie
/uɤ̞/ ue
/ye̞/ ye
/ai/ ai
/uai/ uai
/yai/ yai
/e̞i/ ei
/ue̞i/ uei
/ye̞i/ yei
/ɒu/ au
/iɒu/ iau
/əu/ ou
/iəu/ iou
/õ/ onn
/ə̃/ enn
/iẽ/ ienn
/yẽ/ yenn
/ən/ en
/in/ in
/uən/ un
/yn/ yn
/an/ an
/iæn/ ian
/uan/ uan
/yæn/ yan
/ʊŋ/ ong 在新式中併入/ən/
/iʊŋ/ iong 在新式中併入/in/
/m̩/ m
/n̩/ n

聲調编辑

聲調名 聲調值 維基詞典
陰平 33 1
陽平 13 2
上聲 41 3 使
陰去 45 4
陽去 21 5
入聲 24 6
輕聲 (無符號)

變調编辑

  •  
  • (快速說話時)  

贛語编辑

聲母编辑

IPA 維基詞典
/p/ b
/pʰ/ p
/m/ m
/f/ f
/t/ d
/tʰ/ t
/l/ l
/t͡s/ z
/t͡sʰ/ c
/s/ s
/t͡ɕ/ j 只在高位前元音前
/t͡ɕʰ/ q 只在高位前元音前
/n̠ʲ/ ny 只在高位前元音前
/ɕ/ x 只在高位前元音前
/k/ g
/kʰ/ k
/ŋ/ ng
/h/ h

韻母编辑

IPA 維基詞典
/z̩/ i 只在/t͡s/
/i/ i
/u/ u
/y/ y
/a/ a
/ia/ ia
/ua/ ua
/o/ o
/uo/ uo
/e/ e
/ie/ ie
/ue/ ue -
/ye/ ye
/ɵ/ eo
/m̩/ m 零聲母
/n̩/ n 零聲母
/ŋ̍/ ng 零聲母
/ai/ ai
/uai/ uai
/oi/ oi - 只用作感歎詞
/ei/ ei - 只用於縮約形式
/ɨi/ i 只在/f/
/ui/ ui
/au/ au
/ɛu/ eu
/iɛu/ ieu
/ɨu/ iu 只在/t͡s/
/iu/ iu
/an/ an
/uan/ uan
/ɵn/ on
/uɵn/ uon
/yɵn/ yon
/ɛn/ en
/iɛn/ ien
/ɨn/ iin
/in/ in
/un/ un
/yn/ yn
/aŋ/ ang
/iaŋ/ iang
/uaŋ/ uang
/ɔŋ/ ong
/iɔŋ/ iong
/uɔŋ/ uong
/uŋ/ ung
/iuŋ/ iung
/at̚/ at
/uat̚/ uat
/ɵt̚/ ot
/uɵt̚/ uot
/yɵt̚/ yot
/ɛt̚/ et
/iɛt̚/ iet
/uɛt̚/ uet
/ɨt̚/ iit
/it̚/ it
/ut̚/ ut
/yt̚/ yt
/aʔ/ ah
/iaʔ/ iah
/uaʔ/ uah -
/ɔʔ/ oh
/iɔʔ/ ioh
/uɔʔ/ uoh
/uʔ/ uh
/iuʔ/ iuh

聲調编辑

聲調名 聲調值 維基詞典
陰平 42 1
陽平(A) 24 2 只與送氣聲母搭配
上聲 213 3
陽平(B) 35 4 只與不送氣聲母搭配
去聲 11 5
陰入 5 6
陽入 2 7
輕聲 (無符號)

變調编辑

  •  
  •  
  •  

重音编辑

在音節前加一個撇號(')來表示重音。

今日 'jin1 nyit6
水果 sui3 'guo3

吳語编辑

聲母與韻母编辑

維基詞典
羅馬化
清濁 錢乃榮
羅馬化
吴音小字典 IPA 例字
p b p /p/
ph p ph /pʰ/
b bh b /b̻/
m m m /m/
'm 'm /ʔm/
f f f /f/
v fh v /v̻/
vh /v̥/
t d t /t/
th t th /tʰ/
d dh d /d̻/
n n n /n/
'n 'n /ʔn/ (文)(文)
l l l /l/
'l 'l /ʔl/
ts z ts /t͡s/
tsh c tsh /t͡sʰ/
dz dz /d͡z/
s s s /s/
z sh z /z̻/
j j c(i)
ts(i)
/t͡ɕ/
q q ch(i)
tsh(i)
/t͡ɕʰ/
jj jh j(i) /d̥͡ʑ/
ny ny ny /n̠ʲ/
'ny 'ny /ʔn̠ʲ/
x x s(i)
sh(i)
/ɕ/
xx xh z(i)
zh(i)
/ʑ̻/
k g k /k/
kh k kh /kʰ/
g gh g /ɡ̊/
ng ng ng /ŋ/
'ng 'ng /ʔŋ/
h h h /h/
hh - /ʔ/
hh wh gh
y/w[note 1]
/ɦ/
  1. Don't forget to change the final to i-, u-, y-.
維基詞典
羅馬化
錢乃榮
羅馬化
吴音小字典 IPA 例字
a a a /a̠/
o o o /o̝/
au ao au /ɔ/
eu eu /ɜ/
e e e, ai, ae /e̞/
oe oe oe /ø/
i i, yi i, ie, y, ye /i/
ia ia, ya ia, ya /i̯a̠/
iau iao, yao iau, yau /i̯ɔ/
ieu ieu, yeu /i̯ɜ/
u u u /ʋʷ/
ua ua ua, wa /u̯a̠/
ue ue ue, we /u̯e̞/
uoe uoe, woe /u̯ø/
y yu iu, yu /y/
yoe ioe, yoe /ɥø/
an ang an /ã/
aan ang aon /ɑ̃/
en en en /ə̆ŋ/
on ong on /ʊ̆ŋ/
aq ak ah /ă̠ʔ/
oq ok oh /ŏʔ/
eq ek eh /ə̆ʔ/
ian ian, yan /i̯ã/
iaan iaon, yaon /i̯ɑ̃/ (白)
in in in, yin /ɪ̆ɲ/ (白)
ion ion, yon /i̯ʊ̆ŋ/
iaq iah, yah /i̯ă̠ʔ/
ioq ioh, yoh /i̯ŏʔ/
iq ik ih, yih /i̯ɪ̆ʔ/
uan uan, wan /u̯ã/ ~火
uaan uaon, waon /u̯ɑ̃/
un uen, wun /u̯ə̆ŋ/
uaq uah, wah /u̯ă̠ʔ/
ueq ueh, weh /u̯ə̆ʔ/
yn iuin, yuin /ʏ̆ɲ/
yq uih, yuih /ɥɪ̆ʔ/
er er r /əɻ/ (文)
r y y /z̩/
mm m /m̩/ (白)(白)~沒
ngg n ng /ŋ̍/ (白)端~

聲調编辑

Unlike other varieties such as Beijing Mandarin (right-prominent, limited but systematic), Guangzhou Cantonese (rare and non-systematic, but with certain patterns) or Taiwanese Hokkien (right-prominent, widespread and systematic), the tone sandhi rules in Shanghainese comprise two parts—a left-prominent word tone sandhi rule, and a right-prominent phrase tone sandhi rule. Words of fossilised nature follow the first rule, and analysable phrases (usually of verb + noun composition) follow the second rule.

For the former, the tone sandhi pattern is entirely dependent on (i.e. predictable from) the tonal category of the first syllable and independent of the tonal categories of the other syllables.

There are five tonal categories (or "tones") in new-style (中派與新派) Shanghainese, a reduction from six in old-style (老派) Shanghainese. The tonal category a character belongs to can essentially be inferred from its Middle Chinese pronunciation, or pronunciations from other Chinese varieties. Middle Chinese had four tones—level, rising, departing and checked. In the development to Shanghainese, each of the four Middle Chinese tones split in two, conditioned by the voicing (voiceless—dark, voiced—light) of the initial of the character. Three of the resultant eight tonal categories then merged with other categories, producing five tonal categories in total.

Several of these tonal categories are non-phonemic; that is, they are predictable from the voicing of the initial consonant and from whether the syllable is checked (ending in a glottal stop). Only tones 1 and 2 are contrastive: they both occur in syllables with voiceless initials and no final glottal stop.

Suzhou by contrast has seven tones, three of which are phonemic. For more, see Suzhou dialect § Tones on Wikipedia.

調號 調名 清濁 調值 例字 對應中古漢語聲調
1 陰平阴平 ˥˧ 53 漿 陰平
2 陰去阴去 ˧˦ 34 陰上、陰去
3 陽去阳去 ˨˧ 23 陽平、陽上、陽去
4 陰入阴入 ˥ʔ 55 陰入
5 陽入阳入 ˩˨ʔ 12 陽入

Left-prominent tone sandhi (word sandhi)编辑

Each of these five categories then has a tone sandhi pattern, depending on the number of syllables in the word.

Left-prominent word tone sandhi patterns
Tonal category Monosyllabics Disyllabics Trisyllabics Tetrasyllabics Pentasyllabics
1. Dark level type 53 55+21 55+33+21 55+33+33+21 55+33+33+33+21
2. Dark departing type 34 33+44 33+55+21 33+55+33+21 33+55+33+33+21
3. Light departing type 23 22+44 22+55+21 22+55+33+21 22+55+33+33+21
4. Dark checked type 55 33+44 33+55+21 33+55+33+21 33+55+33+33+21
5. Light checked type 12 11+23 11+22+23 11+22+22+23
22+55+33+21
22+55+33+33+21

For Wu romanisations in the template {{zh-pron}}, the romanisation is made up of: tonal category of the first character (one-digit number) + romanisations of the initial and final of each character (separated by spaces).

Right-prominent tone sandhi (phrase sandhi)编辑

When words combine form a phrase, the following right-prominent sandhi rules apply. In short, when the word A in appears non-finally in a phrase, its last syllable (A-x) changes to a flat (level) tone. The tone sandhi value that syllable A-x changes to is conditioned by three factors: (1) the tonal category of syllable A-x, (2) the number of syllables in word A, and if the number of syllables in A is 1 – (3) whether word A is tightly associated with the word preceding word A.

Word undergoing sandhi (i.e. word A) Tonal category of last syllable of word undergoing sandhi (i.e. syllable A-x) Example
Tone 1 Tone 2 Tone 3 Tone 4 Tone 5
Monosyllabic word unbound to any word preceding it 44 33 44 22 儂好侬好 (3non+2hau)
炒魷魚炒鱿鱼 (2tshau+3hhieu hhngg)
Monosyllabic word tightly bound to a monosyllabic word preceding it 硬碰硬 (3ngan+-phan+3ngan)
Multisyllabic word 33 33 嘸著嘸落呒着呒落 (3hhmm zaq+3hhmm loq)
Monosyllabic word tightly bound to a multisyllabic word preceding it 前世作孽 (3xxi sr+4tsoq+5nyiq)

Tone "-" forces a mid-tone on a monosyllable.

Conversion from MiniDict tone notation编辑

  • (level), (rising), (departing), and (checked) should be used for reference, not the numbers.
MiniDict to Wiktionary tone conversion
MiniDict Voicing of initial Tone category
voiced 3
voiceless 1
voiced 3
voiceless 2
voiced 3
voiceless 2
voiced 5
voiceless 4

Other notations编辑

The notation + is explained above in the #Right-prominent tone sandhi (phrase sandhi) section. Additionally, the symbol & can be used in sentences to annotate the division of words. This is primarily used in the transcriptions of Wu phrases and sentences in {{zh-x}}; for example, as shown on the page 日腳, the transcription for 今朝是啥日腳? in Wu is 1jin tsau&3zr&2sa&5nyiq jiaq.

Examples编辑

Resources编辑

  • For checking the pronunciation of words: Comprehensive Dictionary of Shanghainese (《上海话大词典》) - uses IPA notations throughout the book
  • For checking the pronunciation of characters: Wu Chinese MiniDict
    Note that this website uses a different romanisation system than the one implemented here. Their romanisation scheme aims to be a pan-Wu scheme, and occasionally describes the phonology of Shanghainese unintuitively.
    Correspondences with WT romanisation:
    Initials (MiniDict = WT): c = j, ch = q, j = jj, sh = x, zh = xx, si = xi, zi = xxi, gh = hh
    Null-initials followed by glides 'y-', 'w-' are pronounced with the 'hh' initial. i.e. yih = hhiq and waon = hhuaan
    Finals (MiniDict = WT): ou = u, iu = y, yu = r, ie = i, aon = aan, iuin = yn, -h = -q, aeh = eq, iuih = yq, r = er, -iu- = -y-, ng = ngg, m = mm
    Tones: (level), (rising), (departing), (checked). To know whether it is dark or light, check the voicing of the initial. Voiced initials = light, voiceless = dark.